The Annual BCI Research Awards are international prizes that recognize the top new projects in brain-computer interface (BCI) research. This book contains summaries of the key projects from the 2018 BCI Research Award. Each article is authored by the group of researchers who developed the project, and articles have been updated with new progress achieved since 2018. They are complemented by an introduction by the editors together with a chapter of highlights and interviews with the 2018 award winners. One of the prominent trends in recent years has been the development of BCIs for new patient groups; many chapters in this book present emerging and novel research directions likely to become more prevalent in the near future.